The theoretical framework provides information about the core mathematical skills in the age group of 5-8-year-old children. Furthermore, it includes knowledge about mathematical difficulties and factors that affect mathematical development. Knowledge about interventions related to supporting children with weak mathematical skills is also provided. These have influenced the development work of ThinkMath materials and may support the use of the material.

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**Symbolic and non-symbolic number sense****Understanding mathematical relations****Counting skills****Basic skills in arithmetic**

**Early signs of mathematical learning difficulties**

**Identification of children with low early mathematical performance**